SetCom Smart Cart Pico Howto

This smart card seems to support only 1024 bit key length and certificates in der format with .cer file extension.

Steps to generate and import keys:

1. generate private key and self signed certificate:

openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 3650 -newkey rsa:1024 -keyout privateKey.key -out certificate.crt

2. convert certificate to der format with cer extension

openssl x509 -outform der -in certificate.crt -out certificate.cer

2a. or optionally pack key and certificate in single file

openssl pkcs12 -export -out certificate.pfx -inkey privateKey.key -in certificate.crt

3. import resulting file/files

Implementing Horde Groupware. Integration with Microsoft Active Directory (MSAD).


1. Objectives:

Our goal is to implement Horde (feature rich e-mail, time tracking, calendar and  task system). We have to design underlying infrastructure as  well. That system should have web based access, should be capable to filter e-mail messages for spam and viruses, should integrate user management with existing MSAD. As we need modular, suitable for small to mid-sized organizations design, easy to test and deploy we decided to split mail filter (mailfilter), mail store (mail), web access(www) and MSAD(dc1) on different servers. We also decided to build mailfilter, mail and www servers as guest servers (vservers) running on top of linux-vserver host machine. Some of positives are:

  • There is no overhead at all. Easy to set as test system or learning lab. Easy to install, remove and manage  vservers.
  • Increased security.
  • Guests are almost hardware independent.
  • As load grows or when we have hardware failures, we can easily move a guest from one host to another.

2. Install Linux-Vserver (optional)

We use Gentoo Linux as our primary distribution both as host and guests [1].

You will need:

2.1. Kernel support.(all distributions)

# Obtain vserver patch


# Obtain kernel sources



tar -xjvf linux-


cd linux-

# Configure your kernel. This step is important!

make menuconfig

#patch your kernel

patch -p1 < ../patch-

#enable linux-vserver code

make menuconfig



#install kernel and moddules

make modules_install

cp ./arch/your_arch/bzImage /boot/whatever



2.2. Vserver utils(all distributions)

(on Gentoo)

emerge -pv util-vserver

rc-update add vservers.default default

/etc/init.d/vservers.default start

(on Debian)

apt-get install util-vserver

2.3. Guest images.(all distributions)

(all distributions)

# note –initstyle parameter, possible value ‘plain’

(on Gentoo)

#Obtain vserver image


# Build mailfilter

vserver mailfilter build \

–context 16 \

–hostname mailfilter \

–interface eth0: \

–initstyle gentoo \ (replace if needed)

-m template — \

-d gentoo \

-t /path/to/stage4-i686-20070905.tar.bz2

# Build mail

vserver mail build \

–context 17 \

–hostname mail \

–interface eth0: \

–initstyle gentoo \ (replace if needed)

-m template — \

-d gentoo \

-t /path/to/stage4-i686-20070905.tar.bz2

# Build www

vserver www build \

–context 18 \

–hostname www \

–interface eth0: \

–initstyle gentoo \ (replace if needed)

-m template — \

-d gentoo \

-t /path/to/stage4-i686-20070905.tar.bz2

#start vservers

vserver mailfilter start

vserver mail start

vserver www start

#(optiomal) update (each) vservers

vserver www enter

emerge -pvu system

emerge -pvu world

revdep-rebuild -pv

3. Configure Mailfilter.

Emerge (install) postfix and MailScanner.

#Adjust needed use flags

USE=”clamav f-prot postfix spamassassin” ACCEPT_KEYWORDS=”~x86″ emerge -pv MailScanner

#open /etc/MailScanner/MailScanner.conf

#and edit according your needs

#open /etc/postfix/main.cnf

queue_directory = /var/spool/postfix

command_directory = /usr/sbin

daemon_directory = /usr/lib/postfix

data_directory = /var/lib/postfix

mail_owner = postfix

relay_domains =

relayhost =

header_checks = regexp:/etc/postfix/header_checks

;smtpd_delay_reject = yes

;smtpd_helo_required = yes

;smtpd_helo_restrictions =

;     permit_mynetworks,

;     check_helo_access

;           hash:/etc/postfix/hello_access,


;    reject_invalid_hostname,

;    permit

;smtpd_sender_restrictions =

;    permit_sasl_authenticated,

;    permit_mynetworks,

;    reject_non_fqdn_sender,

;    reject_unknown_sender_domain,

;    permit

;smtpd_recipient_restrictions =

;   reject_unauth_pipelining,

;   reject_non_fqdn_recipient,

;   reject_unknown_recipient_domain,

;   permit_mynetworks,

;   permit_sasl_authenticated,

;   reject_unauth_destination,

;   permit


postmap hello_access

# Create file

echo “/^Received:/ HOLD”>>/etc/postfix/header_checks



# Edit /etc/postfix/

#We set host name to be mail, not mailfilter in smtp greeting message

#change following line

#localhost:smtp      inet  n       –       n       –       –       smtpd


#localhost:smtp      inet  n       –       n       –       –       smtpd -o myhostname=mail

#remove postfix from default run level

rc-update del postfix default

#add MailScanner to default run level

rc-update add MailScanner default

#and run it

/etc/init.d/MailScanner start

#on debian based distribution use update-rc.d command


#emerge spf

;ACCEPT_KEYWORDS=”~x86″ emerge -v pypolicyd-spf


# Add following to

;policyd-spf  unix  –       n       n       –       0       spawn

;                   user=nobody argv=/usr/bin/python /usr/bin/policyd-spf

# Add following ot

;                  reject_unauth_destination

;                   check_policy_service unix:private/policyd-spf


# emerge postgrey

;emerge -pv postgrey

; add to run level

;rc-update add postgrey default

4. Configure Mail.

4.1. Emerge (install) postfix and  dovecot with sasl and ldap support. Process will vary depending of your Linux flavor. On Gentoo:

USE=”ssl ldap sasl sieve” emerge -pv postfix dovecot

4.2. Create vmail user[2].

Quote from [2]: “Create a new user, we will call it vmail. Change the Login Shell to /sbin/nologin, this user account should not be used for logging in. Take note of the User ID and Home Directory of vmail. Note the Group ID of vmail. We’ll be needing all of them later.“

4.3. Create a user ‘qu’ (or any other name) in MSAD with bigstrongpassword.

Note that user name , login and person name must all be the same. We will use this account information for querying ldap server only.

4.3. Configure postfix[2].

# create /etc/postfix/

server_host =

search_base = dc=example,dc=com

version = 3






# Create /etc/postfix/ [3]

server_host =

search_base = dc=example,dc=com

version = 3


leaf_result_attribute= mail

special_result_attribute = member



# Create /etc/postfix/

server_host =

search_base = dc=example,dc=com

version = 3





#edit /etc/postfix/

queue_directory = /var/spool/postfix

command_directory = /usr/sbin

daemon_directory = /usr/lib/postfix

data_directory = /var/lib/postfix

mail_owner = postfix


mydomain =

mydestination = $myhostname, localhost.$mydomain, localhost

virtual_mailbox_domains = $mydomain










unknown_local_recipient_reject_code = 550

mynetworks =,,

smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes

smtpd_sasl_type = dovecot

smtpd_sasl_path = private/auth

smtpd_recipient_restrictions=   permit_mynetworks,permit_sasl_authenticated,reject

smtpd_tls_security_level = may

smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes

smtp_tls_note_starttls_offer = yes

smtpd_tls_key_file = /etc/ssl/private/mail2.key

smtpd_tls_cert_file =  /etc/ssl/private/mail2.crt

smtpd_tls_CAfile =  /etc/ssl/private/ca.crt

smtpd_tls_loglevel = 3

smtpd_tls_received_header = yes

smtpd_tls_session_cache_timeout = 3600s

tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom

sendmail_path = /usr/sbin/sendmail

newaliases_path = /usr/bin/newaliases

mailq_path = /usr/bin/mailq

setgid_group = postdrop

html_directory = /usr/share/doc/postfix-2.5.5/html

manpage_directory = /usr/share/man

sample_directory = /etc/postfix

readme_directory = /usr/share/doc/postfix-2.5.5/readme

home_mailbox = .maildir/

#Edit /etc/postfix/

#add dovecot transport and comment old local transport

local   unix  –       n       n       –       –       pipe

flags=DRhu user=vmail:vmail argv=/usr/libexec/dovecot/deliver2 ${user}


;mv /usr/lib/postfix/local /usr/lib/postfix/localp

#create filе /usr/lib/postfix/local


HOME=”/home/vmail/$1/” /usr/libexec/dovecot/deliver



4.4. Configure dovecot[2]

#edit (create)  /etc/dovecot/dovecot-ldap.conf

hosts =

dn = qu

dnpass = bigstrongpassword

auth_bind = yes

auth_bind_userdn =EXAMPLE\%u

ldap_version = 3

base =  dc=example, dc=com

pass_filter = (&(objectClass=person)(uid=%u))

#edit /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf

listen = [::]

disable_plaintext_auth = no

ssl_cert_file = /etc/ssl/private/mail2.crt

ssl_key_file = /etc/ssl/private/mail2.key

ssl_ca_file = /etc/ssl/private/ca.crt

mail_location = maildir:~/.maildir

protocol imap {


protocol pop3 {


protocol lda {

postmaster_address =

log_path = /home/vmail/dovecot-deliver.log

mail_plugins = cmusieve

sieve_global_dir = /home/vmail/



auth_debug = yes

auth default {

mechanisms = plain

passdb pam {

args = “*”


passdb ldap {

args = /etc/dovecot/dovecot-ldap.conf


userdb passwd {


userdb static {

args = uid=1000 gid=1000 home=/home/vmail/%u


user = root

socket listen {

client {

path = /var/spool/postfix/private/auth

mode = 0660

user = postfix

group = postfix




dict {


plugin {


#create file /home/vmail/global.sieve

require [“fileinto”];

# Move spam to spam folder

if header :contains “X-Spam-Status” [“YES”] {

fileinto “spam”;





5. Configure Horde.

5.1. Emerge (insall) Horde

USE=”crypt ldap mysql” ACCEPT_KEYWORDS=”~x86″ emerge -pv horde-webmail

5.2. Run setup




[1]Linux Vserver on Gentoo -useful on other distribution too:

[2]Postfix and Dovecot ldap (MSAD) integration:

[3]Active directory mailing list











tar -xjvf linux-

cd linux-

make menuconfig

patch –dry-run -p1 <../patch-

patch -p1 <../patch-


mail postfix-out # cd /

mail / # postfix -c /etc/postfix-out check

postfix: fatal: chdir(/var/spool/postfix-out): No such file or directory

mail / # mkdir /var/spool/postfix-out

mail / # postfix -c /etc/postfix-out check


USE=”crypt ldap mysql apache2 bcmath ctype curl exif ftp gd gmp imap inifile hash simplexml snmp soap truetype xml zip xmlreader imap ssl session xml nls iconv gd ftp ldapcrypt mysql mysqli” ACCEPT_KEYWORDS=”~amd64″ emerge -v php horde-webmail


OpenFire LDAP paged result size

LDAP paged size ldap.pagedResultsSize Finally got it working

In order to work you will need to:

  1. Go to Server::Server Manager::System Properties::Add new property
    Property Name: ldap.pagedResultsSize
    Property Value: 1000
  2. Download source, apply patch, recompile.


There is optional patch that allows retrieving all users (in a single page) in admin interface. It also adds 500 and 1000 results per page.
All users

Note: ldap.pagedResultsSize.patch_ is now applied to svn trunk.

OpenFire Active Directory LDAP integration



1. Scenario
2. A brief introduction to LDAP protocol
3. Configure Open Fire
4. Tuning performance

1. Scenario

The scenario goal is to set up OpenFire with  LDAP based authentication against Microsoft (MS) Active Directory (AD).

2. A brief introduction to LDAP protocol

LDAP is an application protocol. OpenFire will act as a client to a LDAP server – MS AD in our case. We will use AD LDAP for two reasons:

  • User authentication
  • Contact list (roster) population with users and groups already defined in AD.

How it works:

  • You enter username and password in your jabber client.
  • Your client sends your credentials to the OpenFire Server.
  • The OpenFire server tries to connect to the LDAP server with these credentials (make a bind). If connection is successful the OpenFire server knows, that you are the one who you pretend to be.
  • The OpenFire server reads user and group information from the AD via LDAP protocol according to some predefined criteria (search filters).

Basic assumption:

The easiest way to understand LDAP protocol is to imagine that the file browser on your computer is a LDAP server. You have a com directory with a subdirectory named company. The company directory in turn contains a subdirectory named  my and so on. Let’s assume that you search for all png files. Depending on your search starting point your results will vary. If you search starts at OUS folder, you probably won’t get any results. In terms of LDAP the search starting point is called base dn and the search criteria is called search filter.

File Browser

Now a real example:

Suppose we have an AD. The domain is called, and the FQDN of the domain controller is . There are two groups: salesand it.  Both reside in Groups Organizational Unit (OU), which resides in OUS.  We also have a Users OU. At the picture below you can see how the AD looks like viewed in Active Directory Users and Computers (at foreground) and viewed by an MS LDAP browser called ADSIEDIT (at background). Please take a look at the Distinguished Name. You can think about it as a full path to an object (a group, a person, etc.) in AD while using LDAP notation. Remember the example above?  You can denote cn as a common name, ou as an organizational unit , dc as a domain component.

You can see how people records (DNs) look like in the AD and in an LDAP browser:
ldap users

3. Configure OpenFire

First open your web browser. In our case OF is installed on dc1.

install step 1

Next enter a domain name.

installation step 2

Choose LDAP integration
install step 3

Configure database settings, then enter necessary information. Please note, that you can use a dedicated  user account for OF administrator, no need for AD administrative privileges. Test settings!

install step 4

Tweak your user and group filters! You can use this simple filter to extract only users with a valid email address. Of course you can use any valid field in LDAP schema as a search criteria.

You can filter groups by ‘group name’. This filter will extract only groups ending with ‘-fg’.

Remember to test the admin login!

4 Tuning performance

4.1 Java virtual machine memory settings

In order to achieve best performance you will need to increase default memory used by java VM. In Gentoo linux – go to /etc/conf.d/openfire
and change -Xmx2048m to the desired value.

OPENFIRE_OPTS="-Xmx2048m -DopenfireHome=${OPENFIRE_HOME} -Dopenfire.lib.dir=${OPENFIRE_LIB}"
OPENFIRE_CLASS="-classpath ${OPENFIRE_LIB}/startup.jar"
OPENFIRE_JAR="-jar ${OPENFIRE_LIB}/startup.jar"

#JVM used by the openfire server. You can see a list of available vm's in /usr/lib/jvm/
#But remenber that openfire needs a 1.5 jvm

4.2 Cache properties

You have to monitor your cache performance and most likely you will have to increase cache size. Go to server manager:: Caches summary. Watch for Roster cache size and usage. Some symptoms of inefficient cache size are: slow user connection, users appears offline while connected, messages are delayed, LDAP server experiences heavy traffic. Properties to note:

I achieve best performance boost with Username2Roster.
If you have a large number of users and frequent logins, you can try to enable authCache:

4.3 Uninstall modules

Remove all unneeded modules.
ToDo / Note this is a work in progress/:

add links, more tweaks, more search filters.

OpenFire UserService Plugin extension

I want to be able to send messages from an external application via an http request to users. For this reason I ‘merged’ UserService and Subscription plugins. With this modification userService can send messages to users. All you need to do is to build a correct http request in your application.

  • Note, that I’m NOT a Java programmer at all!
  • In order to use this modification you’ll have to reinstall the userService Plugin.
  • No error handling is provided.


New parameters added:

sender sender of the message OF version
recipient recipient of the message 3.6+
subject subject of the message 3.6+
msg body (text) of the message 3.6+
username a valid username 3.7+


Example query 3.6+ :

Example query 3.7+ :


All parameters can be sent via HTTP POST or GET methods in a single query. For example the sender, the recipient and the subject parameters use  http GET, while the msg parameter uses http POST method.

Note: In order to send big (more than ~2k) messages you need to use POST method for the msg parameter.  You need to urlencode() some or all the values!


An example usage is an intranet web application that sends message to a user  when someone opens a link. A simple PHP example:


Simple PHP example
// OF server address
$postdata = http_build_query(
             'type'        => 'sendmsg',
             'secret'        => 'bigsecret',
             'username'     => 'sysuser1',    
             'msg'         => 'Call me ASAP',
             'sender'        => 'admin1',
             'recipient'    => 'user1',
             'subject'        => 'URGENT'
$opts = array('http' =>
            'method'  => 'POST',
            'header'  => 'Content-type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded',
            'content' => $postdata
$context  = stream_context_create($opts);
//Send message & Get result
$line = file_get_contents($jserver, false, $context);
//Check result
if (!(stripos($line, "<result>ok</result>") === false)){Do something - message sen